Toyota Reveal Their New 'Third Generation' Diesel Engines - Performance Figures | Part Three

Toyota say the service maintenance costs over the industry standard 60,000 miles are 4.1 hours, the best in its class.

The two new diesel units are built at Toyota’s eighth European production centre, their second in Poland. The new factory built at a cost of £140 million created 950 new jobs. Production started in March this year and a full capacity of 180,000 engines annually will be achieved by 2007.

The Avensis is Toyota’s Flagship in Europe and it is built exclusively in Britain at their Burnaston factory. Capacity has been increased to 285,000 cars a year.

The new 2.2-litre D-4D engines are lightweight all aluminium with cast iron bore liners for durability. The block comes from the Toyota AZ family of aluminium petrol engines. For the 148bhp version a relatively low compression ratio of 16.8:1 is adopted to reduce noise, vibration, harshness and to reduce engine wear. For the 175bhp unit the compression ratio is reduced further to 15.8:1, the lowest in the world for a diesel engine. The larger engine also differs from the 148bhp unit by using piezoelectric fuel injectors that operate at twice the speed of conventional solenoid units. Each injector has ten nozzles and up to five multiple injections can take place during one engine cycle. This unit is also unique in having an injector positioned with the exhaust manifold. A burst of fuel is ignited to burn of waste exhaust emissions and particulates before they enter the exhaust gas recirculation process. This unit is also fitted with D-CAT (Diesel Clean Advanced Technology) catalyser to reduce exhaust emissions, including NOx and particulates, even further.

The 148bhp unit has a torque output of 310Nm from 2,000 to 3,200rpm. Fuel consumption during the combined cycle is 47.9mpg, CO2 156g/km with a Band D vehicle excise duty rating. Top speed is 130mph with a 0-62mph time of 9.3 seconds.

The 175bhp/400Nm engine, due in the UK in 2006, gives a top speed of 137mph with a 0-62mph acceleration time of 8.6 seconds. The combined cycle fuel consumption is 46.3mpg with a CO2 rating of 161 g/km.

A new six-speed, lightweight and compact transmission is also used for both engines. Under pressure from Toyota in Europe, the Japanese engineers are under pressure to design and make available an automatic transmission.

Published 14 May 2005 Melanie Carter

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